Pneumonia: Leading Cause of Death in the Early 20th Century

n the days before antibiotics many people died from communicable diseases. One of these diseases was pneumonia. At the turn-of-the-20thcentury it was the leading cause of death, and 40 percent of those who died were under the age of five.

Adults, of course, were not immune. Women were susceptible to pneumonia because their tight corsets made it difficult for their lungs to function properly.

Still, death rates for contagious diseases were dropping as the new century dawned thanks to sanitation, clean drinking water, hygiene, pest control and vaccination.


Pneumonia is an inflammation of the lungs caused usually by bacteria or a virus. Those with underlying medical conditions or a weakened immune system are more vulnerable.

Symptoms include:

  • Cough
  • Fever
  • Fatigue
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Chest pain
  • Phlegm
  • Fluid on the lungs
  • Bluish skin tone

The lungs of a patient might experience what is called crackles, a distinctive sound.

Famous Deaths

Pneumonia claimed the lives of many during the Victorian and Edwardian eras.

Some notable people who died of the disease before 1920 include:

  • Leo Tolstoy
  • John McCrae
  • Lewis Carroll
  • Victor Hugo
  • Walt Whitman
  • Harriet Tubman
  • Johann Strauss II
  • Susan B. Anthony
  • Andrew Carnegie
  • Stonewall Jackson
  • Robert E. Lee
  • Geronimo
  • Calamity Jane
  • President William Henry Harrison
  • President Benjamin Harrison
  • Boss Tweed
  • John Muir

Pneumonia is not a disease of a bygone era, however. It is still one of the top 10 causes of death and is the top cause of hospitalization in the United States, according to the CDC.

The best means of prevention are handwashing and covering the nose and mouth while sneezing or coughing. Vaccines also are available.

Where to Purchase the WWI Trilogy

This post is a companion piece to Melina Druga’s WWI Trilogy: Angel of Mercy, Those Left Behind and Adjustment Year.  The trilogy focuses on Hettie and her family as they navigate the challenges and heartbreak World War I brings.

Angel of Mercy:  A nurse reluctantly sacrifices her career for marriage. An impending war will change her, and her husband’s, life forever.  Available in eBook, paperback and hardcover.  Click here for a full list of retailers.

Those Left Behind:  The brewing winds of war will soon rip the family apart. Available in eBook, paperback and hardcover.  Click here for a full list of retailers.

Adjustment Year:  A war nurse returns home. Society expects her to carry on as if the Great War never happened. But how can she?  Available in eBook, paperback and hardcover.  Click here for a full list of retailers.